IMPLEMENTATION OF EAFM IN INDONESIA,
WILL SUSTAIN THE FISHERY?
B.G. Hutubessy, A. Syahailatua, J.W. Mosse
Different perception on ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM) drives misleading of EAFM implementation in Indonesia. EAFM perception using existing paradigm (single sector specific) may not consider the impact of fishing to ecosystem.
Following the establishment of EAFM in Indonesia on 2010, we found that the practice is based on the recent fisheries regulation particularly on size selective. Indicators of size selective (gears D50; catch M50) and species selective (less by-catch) are essential for fisheries domain. Meanwhile, some reports showed that selective fishing leads to growth overfishing due to large fish reduction and trophic cascade due to ecosystem functional reduction of targeted species.
By adding human well-being in the management, such as fulfil fishers need on boats and gears, gender streaming and cooperative work, EAFM is now entering the phase of action plans. These action plans tend put more fishing pressure but less concern on fishing impact to ecosystem. For ecological well-being, conservation and coastal habitat protection are important, however, appropriate experts are needed to show their clear relation to EAFM.
Around 75% of Indonesian fisheries are small-scale fisheries. Since statistical data from industrial-scale fisheries have been occupied for stock assessment through MSY-catch curve, small-scale fisheries remain unreported. The availability of holistic fisheries data is necessity to set spatial fishing allocation, in order to balance the fishing pressures in particular fishing management areas.
To sustain the fisheries, common perception on EAFM from government levels down to society should be the same: balance harvesting, harvest proportionally to the productivity.